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Abhira-Gupta Dynasty (Nepal)

The Abhira-Gupta Dynasty was a dynasty which existed in the Kathmandu Valley in modern-day Nepal. These Abhira-Guptas had overshodwed the Licchavi Kings in the administration.Ravigupta,Bhaumagupta, Jishnugupta and Vishnugupta of Abhira-Gupta family controlled Kathmandu (Nepal) as de factor-ruler during many Lichchhavi kings.

Abhira-Gupta Dynasty

6th century-7th century

   Capital                                            Kathmandu

  Common Languages                         Sanskrit

  Religion                                             Hinduism

  Government                                             Monarchy


  • Unknown                           Ravigupta
  • 567-590 A.D                      Bhaumagupta
  • 622-637 A.D                     Jishnugupta
  • 637-644 A.D                     Vishnugupta


  • Established                      6th century
  • Diestablished                  7th centuary
Abhira-Gupta Dynasty Nepal


The Rulers Of the Abhira-Gupta dynasty belonged to the Abhira Tribe as was Claimed by the mother of Bhaumagupta. Regmi has traced the History of Abhiras on the basis of Indian history. They were Abhiras is evident from the Inscription aof Abhira Gomini and chronicles,in which 3 Abhira rules named Vishnugupta,Kishnugupta and Bhumigupta (Bhaumagupta0 are mentioned.Abhiri Gomini’s Inscription (date around 540 A.D) Evidently proves the presence of Abhiras during the same period when Lichhavis Kingdom was Going through some political trouble (happened around starting 6th or Mid Century) which is evident from Chronicles,MMK and Inscriptions. There was much debate among scholars On the terms Abhiri and Gomini.Almost all Nepalese scholars have argued that Bhaumagupta and his family belonged to The Abhira tribe but other Scholars disagree with them and are of the opinion that the family of Virochanagupta didn;t belonged to the Abhira Tribe. Historians like Thakur Prasad Verma are of the view that word abhira here is associated with  family name of mother of the Bhaumagupta and not with Bhaumaguptas father. So it may be incorrect to conclude that the dynasty belonges to Abhira tribe or family.But scholars like Bharavi and Hariram Joshi doesn’t agree with  Thakur Prasad Verma and Believe that Abhiri means the wife of Abhira and even according to Amarakosha the Wife Of Abhira is called abhiri.


  Early History

During the early Lichhavi Period that abhiras who had migrated from The Mathura region of Northern India Before the fifth century A.D occupied the Position of ever Increasing rank in the Administration.

The Abhira-Guptas were high official at Lichchhavi court until they usurped royal position.

  • Ravigupta

Ravigupta,the descent of Abhira-Gupta family. was the first Abhira ruler (Abhinayaka) of Nepal. However,The Lichhavi King Basantdeva was still respected by all. The Abhira Ruler gradually usurped the powers of the Lichhavi King.

Pasupati Inscription Of Abhiri Gomini Confirms That Anuprama was the  pen-name of Ravigupta Gomi. Abhirigomini was mother of Bhaumagupta,she had established Anuprameshware Shivalinga and Donated land ,money and ornaments to the Guthi.

  • Bhaumagupta

Bhaumagupta’s name first apppears in A.D 540 Inscribed on a Shivalinga Conserected by his mother Abhiri the memory of her deceased husband,Anuprama.few years later in A.D 557 we find Bhaumagupta simultaneously enjoying the two of the highest government offices,Aide-de-camp (Mahapratihara) and Inspector General of Police (Sarvadanayaka)

He was Prime minister during the reign period of three Lichhavi Kings Ganadeva,Gangadeva and Sivadeva.His influence started during the reign of King Ganadeva and remain unchanged during the reign of King Gangadeva as well.The assuming of High title of Paramadaivatasri by Sarvadanayaka Bhaumagupta reveals that the Lichhavi rulers were being treated by him as no more than puppets.

Bhaumagupta was a de factor ruler until A.D 590 when King Sivadeva, The reiging Lichhavi had in fact begun to assert his royal authority probably with the Support of the Varman family

The Story Of Abhira-Guptas family did not end with the illustrious Bhaumagupta,but Continued with his descendants,Jishnugupta and Vishnugupta.For after the hiatus during Amshuvarman’s rule Circa A.D 605-621,when no Gupta or Gomini name is Recored suddenly Bhaumagupta’s Grandson Jishnugupta,emerges as a forceful personality.

  • Jishnugupta

Udayadeva was overthrown by his younger brother Dhruvadeva with the help of Jishnugupta. This event must have taken place sometime around 624 A.D since Udayadeva’s Inscription declaring him king is dated in the A.D 621.There years later in yeras 624 A.D Jishnugupta’s first Inscription appears and his usurption of throne is proven.Jishnugupta first appears as joint ruler with Dhruvadeva in A.D 624-25 and then with Bhimaarjundeva from 633 to 635 A.D He probably ruled alone for some period of time. two Inscription name him sole ruler and coins were struck in his name.

According to Kevalpur and Thankot Inscription,Jishnugupta was grandson of Bhaumagupta and great-Grandson of Person known as Manugupta Gomi.He wielded power Between A.D 624 and 637 was a de factor ruler though he continued the  fiction of Lichhavi sovereignty by placing on the throne Dhruvadeva and Bhimarjundeva,Jishnugupta issued coins in his own name .He not only inherited the dominions but also continued the policy and tradition of previous de factor rulers.

The Kevalpur Inscription of King Jishnugupta Clearly mentions that organised towns and village units with self- government existed  in Nepal during the rule  of the forefathers of Manadeva I.

Manadeva also lived with inferior position like Dhruvadeva Till Jishnugupta was alive. Jishnugupta and his son Vishnugupta used The succeeding Lichhavi kings as their puppets and maintained absolute rule for a total period of 22 years.

  • Vishnugupta

Jishnugupta was succeeded by his son Vishnugupta.He enjoyed a Brief reign and must have been ousted from the throne by Narandradeva who restored the Lichhavi dynasty in Nepal in A.D 643 with the Help of Tibetan King. 

List Of Rulers

   The Rulers of the Abhira-Gupta dynasty include :

  • Ravigupta (532 A.D)
  • Bhaumagupta (567-590 A.D)
  • Jishnugupta (624-637 A.D)
  • Vishnugupta (638-643 A.D)